What Is ERC-404? A Comprehensive Guide

What Is ERC-404? A Comprehensive Guide

HomeDeFiWhat Is ERC-404? A Comprehensive Guide

Among the well-recognized token standards within the Ethereum ecosystem are the fungible ERC-20 tokens and the non-fungible ERC-721 tokens (NFTs). Presently, a novel and unofficial token standard labeled ERC-404 is being explored experimentally, with the intention of amalgamating features from both ERC-20 and ERC-721 into a unique digital asset, termed a “semi-fungible” token.

What Is ERC-404?

The newly introduced ERC-404 token standard, crafted by the pseudonymous developers “ctrl” and “Acme,” delineates a set of regulations and protocols governing digital assets on the Ethereum blockchain.

What Is ERC-404?

Token standards, pivotal frameworks defining the operational dynamics of tokens within blockchain ecosystems like Ethereum, come under the purview of ERC-404.

This innovative token standard amalgamates attributes from both ERC-20 and ERC-721, facilitating the generation of “semi-fungible” tokens that amalgamate functionalities from both fungible and non-fungible tokens.

How Does ERC-404 Work?

NFTs, being non-fungible, possess a distinctive quality of uniqueness and indivisibility; thus, ownership of partial NFTs is not feasible.

To address this constraint, ERC-404 introduces a mechanism utilizing token minting and burning procedures, facilitating the fractional transfer of NFTs.

Tokens issued are directly associated with an NFT. Upon purchasing a whole token, the corresponding NFT is generated and added to your wallet. Conversely, selling a portion of the token results in the linked NFT being destroyed. Moreover, in instances where a wallet accumulates enough fractions to complete a token, a new NFT is automatically minted.

What Makes It Stand Out?

The ERC-404 token standard introduces a groundbreaking capability for the native fractionalization of NFTs, thereby establishing novel primitives and mechanisms that are intricately interwoven with them. This innovative approach fosters an environment conducive to the exploration and exchange of NFTs.

What Makes It Stand Out?

The creators of the token standard articulate their vision, emphasizing the aspiration to forge NFTs imbued with inherent fractionalization, and liquidity, and incentivize various facets of trading and engagement, thereby cultivating unique trait sets.

The Pandora team, proponents of the ERC-404 framework, assert that it effectively empowers NFTs constructed using the standard to possess a token valuation that dynamically mirrors real-time floor prices, owing to its facilitation of genuine native liquidity. Unlike traditional models reliant on singular counterparties, holders of ERC-404 tokens have the autonomy to trade at their discretion, leveraging existing liquidity pools.

Moreover, rather than necessitating the utilization of intermediary protocols and solutions, the fractionalization of NFTs can seamlessly occur within the ERC-404 ecosystem, eliminating the need for the collateralization or tokenization of NFTs.

An additional compelling application highlighted by the Pandora team is the integration of randomized processes within gaming NFTs, specifically in the context of the destruction and subsequent reminting of NFTs.

Projects Utilizing The ERC-404 Standard

  • Pandora: Among the pioneering projects embracing the ERC-404 token standard is Pandora. Comprising 10,000 PANDORA ERC-20 tokens alongside 10,000 associated ‘Replicant’ NFTs, a Replicant NFT is minted to your wallet upon the acquisition of a PANDORA token through an exchange.
  • DeFrogs: DeFrogs, a compilation of 10,000 NFTs featuring Pepe the Frog themes, utilizes a derivative of the ERC-404 token standard. It’s touted as the inaugural ERC-404 PFP collection, with its creators asserting its deflationary nature.
  • Monkees: Employing the ERC-404 token standard, Monkees represents another PFP collection. It encompasses 100 NFTs, each boasting ten attributes and six traits.

The Prospects For ERC-404 Moving Forward

In contrast to the widely adopted ERC-20 and ERC-721 token standards, ERC-404 is categorized as “experimental” and unofficial. This denotes that it has not undergone the scrutiny of being submitted for review as an Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) or undergone a comprehensive external audit. Consequently, there exists the possibility of undiscovered flaws within ERC-404, posing a considerable risk to token holders.

The development team emphasizes that, while these two standards are not inherently compatible, their implementation endeavors to integrate them as seamlessly as possible while mitigating potential drawbacks, albeit acknowledging it as a “non-standard” interpretation of ERC-721.

Due to its unofficial status, many NFT platforms and marketplaces do not natively support ERC-404.

The team responsible for the token standard intends to formally propose it as an official Ethereum Improvement Proposal, a process that could prove lengthy. However, their decision to bypass the standard approval process for token standards may set a precedent for other projects, potentially resulting in more unaudited token standards entering the market, thereby exposing users to associated risks.


In conclusion, the emergence of ERC-404 represents a notable milestone in the evolution of token standards within the Ethereum ecosystem. By amalgamating features from both ERC-20 and ERC-721, ERC-404 introduces the concept of semi-fungible tokens, enabling fractional ownership and enhancing liquidity for non-fungible assets.

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